2017

    • Fitzgerald, T., Thomaz, A., Goel, A., "Human-Robot Co-Creativity: Task Transfer on a Spectrum of Similarity", To be presented at the Eighth International Conference on Computational Creativity (ICCC). Atlanta, Georgia. June 2017. View More...

    2016

    • Rugaber, S., Bhati,S., Goswami V., Spiliopoulou E., Azad S., Koushik S., Kulkarni R., Kumble M., Sarathy S. Goel, A (2016). Knowledge Extraction and Annotation for Cross-Domain Textual Case Based Reasoning in Biologically Inspired Design. International Conference On Case-Based Reasoning, 2016
    • Fitzgerald, T., Bullard, K., Thomaz, A., Goel, A., "Situated Mapping for Transfer Learning", Presented at the Fourth Annual Conference on Advances in Cognitive Systems. Evanston, Illinois. June 2016. View More...
    • Fitzgerald, T., Thomaz, A. L., Goel, A. K. (2016). "Abstraction for Analogical Reasoning in Robotic Agents.” Presented at the ICCBR Workshop on Computational Analogy. Atlanta, Georgia. Oct 2016. View More...

    2015

    • Fitzgerald, T. (2015). "Toward a Case-Based Framework for Imitation Learning in Robotic Agents." Presented at the ICCBR Doctoral Consortium. Frankfurt, Germany. Sept. 2015. View More...
    • Fitzgerald, T., Goel, A. K. (2015). "A Case-Based Framework for Task Demonstration Storage and Adaptation." Presented at the ICCBR Workshop on Case-Based Agents. Frankfurt, Germany. Sept. 2015. View More...
    • Fitzgerald, T., Goel, A. K., Thomaz, A. L. (2015). "A Similarity-Based Approach to Skill Transfer." (Extended Abstract). Presented at the Women in Robotics Workshop at the Robotics: Science and Systems Conference. Rome, Italy. July 2015. View More...
    • Fitzgerald, T., (2015). "Case-Based Skill Transfer in Robotic Agents." (Extended Abstract). Presented at the Students of Cognitive Systems Workshop at the Third Annual Conference on Advances in Cognitive Systems. Atlanta, Georgia. May 2015. View More...
    • Fitzgerald, T., Thomaz, A. L. (2015). “Skill Demonstration Transfer for Learning from Demonstration.” (Extended Abstract). Presented at the Pioneers Workshop at the Human-Robot Interaction Conference. Portland, Oregon. Mar 2015. View More...
    • Goel, A. K. (2015). Geometry, Drawings, Visual Thinking and Imagery: Towards a Visual Turing Test of Machine Intelligence. Goel, Ashok K. "Geometry, Drawings, Visual Thinking and Imagery:
      Towards a Visual Turing Test of Machine Intelligence." AAAI Workshop on Beyond the Turing Test. Austin, Texas, USA. January, 2015
    • Fitzgerald, T., McGreggor, K., Akgun, B., Thomaz, A., & Goel, A. K. (2015). Visual Case Retrieval for Interpreting Skill Demonstrations. In Proc. of the Twenty-Third International Conference on Case-Based Reasoning. Frankfurt, Germany. September, 2015.
    • Spiliopoulou, E., Rugaber, S., Goel, A. K., Chen, L., Wiltgen, B., & Jagannathan, A. (2015). Intelligent Search for Biologically Inspired Design. Spiliopoulou, Evangelia, Rugaber, Spencer, Goel, Ashok, Chen, Lianghao, Wiltgen, Bryan, and Jagannathan, Arvind Krishnaa (2015). Intelligent Search for Biologically Inspired Design. In Procs. 20th International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces Companion (IUI Companion '15). pp. 77-80.

    2014

    2013

    2012

    2011

    2010

    2009

    Older Publications

    2009

    General

    Ashok Goel, Peter Cheng, John Clement, Fahim Dogan, Mary Hegarty & Nancy Nersessian. Visual Reasoning in Modeling and Design. Abstract of Symposium, In Proc. Thirty First Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, Amsterdam, July 2009. [pdf]

    Analogical Reasoning, Biologically Inspired Design

    Jim Davies, Ashok Goel & Nancy Nersessian. A Computational Model of Visual Analogies in Design. Journal of Cognitive Systems Research, Special Issue on Analogies – Integrating Cognitive Abilities, 10:204-215. [pdf]

    Ashok Goel, Swaroop Vattam & Michael Helms. Biologically Inspired Design: Human Reasoning from Nature’s Experiences. In Proceedings IJCAI-09 Workshop on Grand Challenges in Reasoning from Experience, Padasena, CA, July 11-12, 2009. [pdf]

    Michael Helms, Swaroop S. Vattam & Ashok K. Goel. Biologically Inspired Design: Process and Products. Design Studies, 30(5):606-622, September 2009. [pdf]

    Swaroop Vattam, Michael Helms & Ashok Goel. Nature of Creative Analogies in Biologically Inspired Innovative Design. In Proc. Seventh ACM Conference on Creativity and Cognition, Berkeley, California, October 2009. [pdf]

    Visual Reasoning, Intelligence Tests

    Maithilee Kunda & Ashok Goel. Evidence for Thinking in Pictures as a Cognitive Account of Autism. Presented at the 2009 IMFAR Conference, Chicago, May 6-8, 2009. [pdf]

    Maithilee Kunda, Keith McGreggor & Ashok Goel. Addressing the Raven’s Progressive Matrices Test of “General” Intelligence. In Proc. AAAI Fall Symposium on Multi-representational Architectures for Human-level Intelligence, Washington, D.C., November 2009. [pdf]

    Meta-Reasoning, Game-Playing

    Joshua Jones & Ashok Goel. Metareasoning-Based Adaptation of Agent Classification Knowledge. In Proc. Eight International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, Budapest, Hungary, May 2009, pp: 1145-1146.[pdf]

    Joshua Jones & Ashok Goel. Metareasoning-Based Learning for Classification Hierarchies. In Proc. SASO-09 Workshop on Meta-Reasoning, San Francisco, September 15, 2009, pp: 123-130. [pdf]

    Joshua Jones, Chris Parnin, Avik Sinharoy, Spencer Rugaber & Ashok Goel. Teleological Metareasoning for Automating Software Adaptation. In Proc. Third IEEE Conference on Self-Adaptive and Self-Organizing Systems. San Francisco, September 15-18 2009, pp:198-205.[pdf]

    Joshua Jones, Chris Parnin, Avik Sinharoy, Spencer Rugaber and Ashok Goel. Adapting Game-Playing Agents to Game Requirements. In Proceedings of the Fifth AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment (AIIDE-09), pp. 148-153, Stanford University, California, USA, October 14-16, 2009.[pdf]

    Learning about Complex Systems, Science Education

    Ashok Goel, Spencer Rugaber & Swaroop Vattam. Structure, Behavior & Function of Complex Systems: The Structure-Behavior-Function Modeling Language. International Journal of AI in Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing, Special Issue on Developing and Using Engineering Ontologies, 23: 23-35, 2009. [pdf]

    Rebecca Jordan, Cindy Hmelo-Silver, Steven Gray, Ashok Goel & Spencer Rugaber. Modeling Practices as a Function of Task Structure. Presented to the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, California, April 2009. [pdf]

    Swaroop Vattam, Ashok Goel, Spencer Rugaber, Cindy Hmelo-Silver & Rebecca Jordan. From Conceptual Representations to Simulations: Why and How. In Proc. Fourteenth International Conference on AI in Education, Brighton, UK, July 2009, 593-595. [pdf]

    Other

    Ashok K. Goel, Summer Adams, Neil Cutshaw & Neha Sugandh. Playing Detective: Using AI for Sensemaking in Investigative Analysis. Georgia Tech GVU Technical Report (# GIT-GVU-09-09-03), January 2009. [pdf]

    Ashok Goel, Emile Morse, Anita Raja, Jean Scholtz & John Stasko. Introspective Self-Explanations for Report Generation in Intelligence Analysis. In Proceedings IJCAI-09 Workshop on Explanation-Aware Computing, Padasena, CA, July 11-12, 2009. [pdf]

    2008

    Summer Adams, Ashok Goel & Neha Sugandh. Using AI for Sensemaking in Intelligence Analysis. In Proc. SIAM Datamining Workshop on Link Analysis, Counter Terrorism and Security, Atlanta, April 2008. [pdf]

    Jim Davies & Ashok Goel. Visual Re-Representation in Creative Analogies. Open AI Journal, 2:11-20, 2008. [pdf]

    Jim Davies, Ashok Goel & Patrick Yaner. Proteus: Visuospatial Analogy in Problem Solving. Knowledge-Based Systems 21(7):636-654, October 2008. [pdf]

    John Gero & Ashok Goel (editors). Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Design Computing and Cognition, Atlanta, June 2008, Berling: Springer.

    Ashok Goel, Randall Davis & John Gero. Multimodal Design: An Overview. International Journal of AI in Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing, Special Issue on Multimodal Design, 22(2), April 2008. [pdf]

    Ashok Goel, Joshua Jones, Chris Parnin, Spencer Rugaber & Avik Sinharoy. Teleological Reasoning in Software Adaptation: A Case Study in Game-Playing Agents. In Proc. DESRIST-2008, Atlanta, May 2008, pp. 365-379. [pdf]

    Michael Helms & Ashok Goel. From Diagrams to Design: Overcoming Knowledge Acquisition Barriers in Case-Based Design. In Proc. Third International Conference on Design Computing and Cognition, Atlanta, June 2008, Berlin: Springer, pp. 341-350. [pdf]

    Michael Helms, Swaroop Vattam & Ashok Goel (2008). Compound Analogies, or How to Make a Surfboard Disappear. In B. C. Love, K. McRae, & V. M. Sloutsky (Eds.), Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 781 – 786. Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society. [pdf]

    Michael Helms, Swaroop Vattam, Ashok Goel, Jeannette Yen & Marc Weissburg (2008). Problem-Driven and Solution-Based Design: Twin Processes of Biologically Inspired Design. Silicon+Skin: Biological Processes and Computation. Proc. of the 28th Annual Conference for ACADIA, 94 -101. Minneapolis, October 16-19. [pdf]

    Cindy Hmelo-Silver, Rebecca Jordan, Marylee Demeter, Steven Gray, Lei Liu, Swaroop Vattam, Spencer Rugaber & Ashok Goel. Focusing on Function: Thinking Below the Surface of Complex Natural Systems. Science Scope, Summer 2008, pp: 27-35, NSTA. [pdf]

    Joshua Jones & Ashok Goel. Retrospective Self-Adaptation of an Agent’s Domain Knowledge: Perceptually-Grounded Semantics for Structural Credit Assignment. In AAAI-08 Workshop on Metareasoning Chicago, IL, 2008.[pdf]

    Kunda, M., and Goel, A. (2008). “How Thinking in Pictures can explain many characteristic behaviors of autism.” In Proceedings of the 7th IEEE International Conference on Development and Learning, pp. 304-309. [pdf]

    Kunda, M., and Goel, A. (2008). “What can pictorial representations reveal about the cognitive characteristics of autism?” In Stapleton, G., Howse, J., and Lee, J. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on the Theory and Application of Diagrams, LNAI 5223, pp. 103–117. [pdf]

    Kunda, M., and Goel, A. (2008). “Thinking in Pictures: A fresh look at cognition in autism.” In Love, B., McRae, K. and Sloutsky, V. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, pp. 321-326. [pdf]

    J. William Murdock & Ashok Goel. Meta-Case-Based Reasoning: Self-Improvement through Self-Understanding. Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence, 20(1): 1-36. [PDF]

    Patrick Ulam, Joshua Jones & Ashok Goel. Using Model-Based Reflection to Guide Reinforcement Learning. In Proc. Fourth AAAI Conference on AI in Interactive Entertainment (AIIDE-08,) October 2008.[pdf]

    Swaroop Vattam, Michael Helms & Ashok Goel. Compound Analogical Design: Interaction Between Problem Decomposition and Analogical Transfer in Biologically Inspired Design. In Proc. Third International Conference on Design Computing and Cognition, Atlanta, June 2008, Berlin:Springer, pp. 377-396. [PDF]

    Swaroop Vattam, Michael Helms, Ashok Goel, Jeannette Yen & Marc Weissburg. Learning About and Through Biologically Inspired Design. In Proc. Second Design Creativity Workshop , Atlanta, June 22, 2008. [PDF]

    Patrick Yaner & Ashok Goel. Analogical Recognition of Shape and Structure in Design Drawings. International Journal of AI in Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing, Special Issue on Multimodal Design, 22(2): 117-128, April 2008. [PDF]

    2007

    Summer Adams & Ashok Goel. Making Sense of VAST Data. In Proc. IEEE Intelligence and Security Informatics, New Brunswick, New Jersey, May 23-24, 2007, pp. 270-273. [pdf]

    Summer Adams & Ashok Goel. A STAB at Making Sense of VAST Data. In Proc. AAAI-2007 Workshop on Plan, Activity, and Intent Recognition, Vancouver, Canada, July 23, 2007, pp. 1-8. [pdf]

    Jim Davies & Ashok Goel. Transfer of Problem-Solving Strategy Using the Cognitive Visual Language. Journal of Visual Languages and Computing; 18(2): 149-164. [PDF]

    Joshua Jones & Ashok Goel. Structural Credit Assignment in Hierarchical Classification. In Proc. International Conference on AI, Las Vegas, June 2007, pp. 378-384. [pdf]

    Joshua Jones, Ashok Goel & Spencer Rugaber. Teleological Reasoning in Adaptive Software Design. In Proc. DESRIST-2007, Los Angeles, May 2007. [pdf]

    Joshua Jones, Ashok Goel & Spencer Rugaber. Automating Software Evolution. In Proc. Science of Design Workshop, Eureka, California, March 2007. [PDF]

    Anita Raja & Ashok Goel. Introspective Self-Explanation in Analytical Agents. In Proc. AAMAS 2007 Workshop on Metareasoning in Agent-based Systems, pp 76-91, Hawaii, May 2007. [pdf]

    Swaroop Vattam, Michael Helms, and Ashok K. Goel. Biologically-Inspired Innovation in Engineering Design: A Cognitive Study. Technical Report, Graphics, Visualization and Usability Center, Georgia Institute of Technology GIT-GVU-07-07, April 2007. [pdf]

    Patrick Yaner. From Shape to Function: Acquisition of Teleological Models from Design Drawings by Compositional Analogy. Ph.D. Dissertation, College of Computing, Georgia Institute of Technology, December 2007

    Patrick Yaner & Ashok Goel. Visual Analogies at Multiple Levels of Abstraction. In Proc. 29th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, Nashville, August 2007. [pdf]

    Patrick Yaner & Ashok Goel. Understanding Drawings by Compositional Analogy. In Proc. International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI-2007), Hyderabad, India. January 2007, pp. 1131-1137. [pdf]

    2006

     

    Andreas von Hessling & Ashok Goel. Enabling MDP Solution Transfer by Abstraction. In ICML-2006 Workshop on Structural Knowledge Transfer for Machine Learning, July 2006.[pdf]

     

    Patrick Yaner & Ashok Goel. Visual Analogy: Viewing Retrieval and Mapping as Constraint Satisfaction. Journal of Applied Intelligence, 25(1):91-105, 2006. [PDF]

    Patrick Yaner & Ashok Goel. From Form to Function: From SBF to DSSBF. In Proc. Second International Conference on Design Computing and Cognition, Eindhoven, Netherlands, July 2006. [pdf]

    Patrick Yaner & Ashok Goel. From Drawings to Models by Analogical Transfer. In Proc. Fourth International Conference on Theory and Application of Diagrams. Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, June 2006, pp. 55-69. [PDF]

    2005

    Jim Davies, Ashok Goel & Nancy Nersessian. Transfer in Visual Case-Based Problem-Solving. In Proc. 6th International Conference on Case-Based Reasoning, Chicago, August 2005, H. Munoz-Avila and F. Ricci (Eds.) Springer-Verlag. Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 163-176. [PDF]

    Jim Davies, Ashok Goel & Nancy Nersessian. Visual Analogy in Problem Solving: A Cognitive Model. In Proc. IJCAI-05 Workshop on Creativity, August 2005. [PDF]

    Jim Davies, Nancy Nersessian & Ashok Goel. Visual Models in Analogical Problem Solving. Foundations of Science, 10(1):133-152, 2005. [PDF]

    Ashok Goel & Susan Craw. Design, Innovation and Case-Based Reasoning. Knowledge Engineering Review, 20(3):271-276, 2005. (This is a review article.) [PDF]

    Andreas von Hessling & Ashok Goel. Abstracting Reusable Cases from Reinforcement Learning. In Proc. ICCBR-05 Workshop on Game Playing.[PDF]

    Joshua Jones & Ashok Goel. Knowledge Organization and Structural Credit Assignment. In Proc. IJCAI-05 Workshop on Reasoning, Representation and Learning in Computer Games, Edinburgh, UK, August 2005. [pdf]

    Patrick Ulam, Ashok Goel, Joshua Jones & William Murdock. Model-Based Guidance for Reinforcement Learning. In Proc. IJCAI-05 Workshop on Game Playing, August 2005. [PDF]

    2004

    Jim Davies. Constructive Adaptive Visual Analogy in Problem Solving. Ph.D. Dissertation, College of Computing, Georgia Institute of Technology, December 2004.

    Ashok Goel & Sambasiva Bhatta. Use of Design Patterns in Analogy-Based Design. Advanced Engineering Informatics, 18(2):85-94, April 2004. [PDF]

    Joshua Jones & Ashok Goel. Hierarchical Judgement Composition: Revisiting the Structural Credit Assignment Problem. In Proc. AAAI-2004 Workshop on Challenges in Game Playing, San Jose, CA, 2004. [pdf]

    Patrick Ulam, Ashok Goel & Joshua Jones. Reflection in Action: Model-Based Self-Adaptation in Game Playing Agents. In Proc. AAAI-2004 Workshop on Challenges in Game Playing. [pdf]

    Patrick W. Yaner & Ashok K. Goel. Visual Analogy: Reexamining Analogy as a Constraint Satisfaction Problem. In Proc. 26th Cognitive Science Conference, August, 2004. [PDF]

    2003

    Jim Davies, Ashok Goel & Nancy Nersessian. Visual Re-Representation in Creative Analogies. In Proc. IJCAI-2003 Workshop on AI in Creativity. [PDF]

    J. William Murdock & Ashok Goel. Localizing Planning using Functional Process Models. In Proc. International Conference on Automated Planning and Scheduling (ICAPS-03), June 2003, pp:73-81. [pdf]

    Jim Davies & Ashok Goel. Representation Issues in Visual Analogies. In Proc. 25th Cognitive Science Conference, August 2003. [ps][pdf]

    2002

    Sambasiva Bhatta & Ashok Goel. Design Patterns and Creative Design. In Engineering Design Synthesis, A. Chakrabarti (editor), Chapter 16, pp. 271-284, Springer, 2002.

    2001

    Jim Davies & Ashok Goel. Visual Analogy in Problem Solving. In Proc. 17th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI-01), August 2001, pp 377-382. Morgan Kaufmann. [pdf]

    J. William Murdock. Self-Improvement through Self-Understanding. Ph.D. Dissertation, College of Computing, Georgia Institute of Technology, August 2001.

    J. William Murdock & Ashok Goel. Meta-Case-Based Reasoning: Use of Functional Models to Adapt Case-Based Agents. In Proc. 3rd International Conference on Case-Based Reasoning, Vancouver, Canada, June 2001. Available as Lecture Notes in Computer Science: Case-Based Reasoning Research and Development Volume 2080, pp. 407-421. [pdf]

    J. William Murdock & Ashok Goel. Learning about Constraints by Reflection. In Proc. Biennial Canadian AI Conference. Available as Lecture Notes in Computer Science: Advances in AI, Volume 2056, pp. 131-140. [pdf]

    J. William Murdock, Ashok K. Goel, Michael J. Donahoo & Shamkant Navathe. A Framework for Method-Specific Knowledge Compilation from Databases. Journal of Intelligent Information Systems, 17(1): 5-21, November 2001. [pdf]

    2000

    Todd Griffith, Nancy Nersessian & Ashok Goel. Function-follows-Form: Generative Modeling in Scientific Reasoning. In Proc. 22nd Cognitive Science Conference, 2000. [pdf]

    1999

    J. William Murdock & Ashok Goel. Towards Adaptive Web Agents. In Proc. 14th IEEE International Conference on Automated Software Engineering (ASE-99), pp. 335-338, Cocoa Beach, Florida, October 12-15, 1999. [PDF]

    J. William Murdock & Ashok Goel. An Adaptive Meeting Scheduling Agent. In Proc. 1st Asia-Pacific Conference on Intelligent Agent Technology, pp. 374-378, Hong Kong, December 15-17, 1999. [ps][pdf]

    Eleni Stroulia & Ashok Goel. Evaluating Problem-Solving Methods in Evolutionary Design: The Autognsotic Experiments. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, Special Issue on Evaluation Methodologies, 51:825-847, 1999. [ps][pdf]

    1998

    Michael Donahoo, William Murdock, Ashok Goel, Shamkant Navathe & Edward Omiecinski. From Data to Knowledge: Method-Specific Knowledge Transformations. In Lecture Notes in AI – 1325: Foundations of Intelligent Systems, Ras and Skowron (editors), Springer, 1998, pp. 411-420. [ps][pdf]

    Ashok Goel, Eleni Stroulia, Zhong Chen & Paul Rowland. A Model-Based Approach to Reconfiguration of Schema-Based Reactive Control Architectures. In Proc. AAAI Fall Symposium on Model-Based Autonomous Systems, Boston, Fall 1998. [pdf]

    Todd Griffith. Generative Modeling in Scientific Discovery. Ph.D. Dissertation, College of Computing, Georgia Institute of Technology, August 1998.

    Sattiraju Prabhakar & Ashok Goel. Functional Modeling for Enabling Adaptive Design of Devices for New Environments. Artificial Intelligence in Engineering, 12:417-444, 1998. [PDF]

    1997

    Gregory Abowd, Ashok Goel, Dean Jerding, Michael McCracken, Melody Moore, William Murdock, Colin Potts, Spencer Rugaber & Linda Wills. MORALE: Mission-Oriented Architectural Legacy Evolution. In Proc. International Conference on Software Maintenance, Bari, Italy, 1997. [PDF]

    Sambasiva Bhatta & Ashok Goel. A Functional Theory of Design Patterns. In Proc. 15th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI-97), Nagoya, Japan, August 1997, pp. 294-300. [pdf]

    Sambasiva Bhatta & Ashok Goel. An Analogical Theory of Creativity in Design. In Proc. 2nd International Conference on Case-Based Reasoning, Lecture Notes in Computer Science – 1266, pp. 565-574, 1997. [pdf]

    Sambasiva Bhatta & Ashok Goel. Learning Generic Mechanisms for Innovative Strategies in Adaptive Design. Journal of Learning Sciences, 6(4):367-396, 1997. [PDF]

    Ashok Goel. Design, Analogy and Creativity. IEEE Intelligent Systems, Special Issue on Qualitative Reasoning, 12(3):62-70, May/June 1997. (This article provides an overview of research on analogical design.) [PDF]

    Ashok Goel, Sambasiva Bhatta & Eleni Stroulia. Kritik: An Early Case-Based Design System. In Issues and Applications of Case-Based Reasoning in Design, M. Maher and P. Pu (editors), Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, pages 87-132, 1997. [pdf]

    Ashok Goel & J. Ramanujam. A Neural Architecture for a Class of Abduction Problems. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 26(6):854-860, 1997. [ps][pdf]

    Eleni Stroulia & Ashok Goel. Redesigning a Problem Solver’s Operators to Improve Solution Quality. In Proc. 15th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI-97), Nagoya, Japan, August 1997, pp. 562-567. [ps][pdf]

    1996

    Eleni Stroulia & Ashok Goel. Artificial Intelligence for Engineering, Design, Analysis and Manufacturing. Cambridge Press , September 1996, pp 355-370.